Drug Treatment Matrix cell C5: Management/supervision: Safeguarding the community

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Society for the Study of Addiction web site

Society for the Study of Addiction



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Management/supervision

Key studies on the influence of management and supervision on treatment’s impacts on crime and safeguarding the community, with a focus on criminal justice and child protection contexts. Examine the credentials of the most well known model for working with offenders, ask yourself why cognitive-behavioural approaches are so prominent, and explore the feasibility of focusing on the child when the parent is the patient.


S Seminal studiesK Key studiesR ReviewsG Guidancemore Search for more studies

Links to other documents. Hover over for notes. Click to highlight passage referred to. Unfold extra text Unfold supplementary text

K Risk-need-responsivity model really does help (2011). Training probation officers in the risk-need-responsivity model intended to match interventions to the offender reduced recidivism among a sample of probationers among whom substance use was a common concern. For discussions click here and here and scroll down to highlighted headings.

K Motivational interviewing style clashes with criminal justice context (2001). Actual performance of US probation staff after motivational interviewing training contradicted promising written responses, and the officers were rated as less ‘genuine’ than before – possibly because the work context limited how far they could genuinely stay true to motivational principles. Same study described in this Findings essay. Related discussion in cell B5’s bite.

K Leadership affects adoption of evidence-based practices (2008; free source at time of writing). Leadership qualities including knowledge and experience and commitment to a rehabilitation focus predicted good substance use treatment practice in US criminal justice services.

K Practical way to triage offenders to appropriate sentencing/treatment (2011). US study confirmed risks of re-offending and needs related to offending (in particular for addiction treatment) are independent dimensions which can be assessed to guide sentencing and treatment in ways which reduce reoffending. For discussion click and scroll down to highlighted heading.

K Adjust drug court sentencing/treatment to offender progress (2012). Among an impressive series of studies of US drug courts, where specialist judges negotiate the offender’s treatment and supervision and regularly monitor progress. During the programme illegal drug use was reduced by triaging offenders to more or less intensive treatment/supervision and then adapting based on their response. Longer term findings (2014; free source at time of writing) on crime remained in favour of the adaptive programme, but none of the differences were statistically significant. For discussion click and scroll down to highlighted heading.

R Drug courts have the edge on usual adjudication (2012). In drug courts the judge or magistrate negotiates treatment and supervision for the offender and plays an active part in both. The most thorough and extensive review to date tentatively concludes they reduce crime compared to usual adversarial proceedings. For related discussion click and scroll down to highlighted heading.

R Female offenders particularly need holistic treatment (2008). Argues that treatment for female offenders should take into account the high prevalence of post-traumatic stress and other mental and physical health problems, and the importance of relationships and of their roles as mothers. Concludes that women respond best to holistic, integrated programmes which incorporate empowerment and peer mentoring and adopt a collaborative rather than an authoritarian approach.

R Substance use practitioners can be helped to incorporate child protection (2007). After reviewing international research, British experts on the family dimensions of substance use problems questioned the commonly reported perception of drug treatment workers that child welfare is beyond their skills and professional comfort zones. For discussion click and scroll down to highlighted heading.

R G Specific recommendations on training for treatment in a criminal justice context (Australian Government, 2005). Uniquely focuses on training staff to treat substance use problems in a criminal justice context, formulating guidance on training and its management based on a review of research specific to this context and more generic literature and principles. For discussion click and scroll down to highlighted heading.

R G Creating and maintaining ‘family sensitive’ treatment services ([Australian] National Centre for Education and Training on Addiction, 2010). Reviews generic and substance use-specific research as a basis for guidance on workforce development policies and practices to help ensure treatment services safeguard their clients’ children. For related discussion click and scroll down to highlighted heading.

G UK clinical guidelines stress continuity of treatment for prisoners ([UK] Department of Health, 2017). Comprehensive, practice-oriented official clinical guidelines. Chapter on treatment in criminal justice systems advises against forced withdrawal from opiate-type drugs and stresses seamless transfer to treatment on release and provision of naloxone to prevent opioid overdose deaths.

G US consensus on substance use treatment in the criminal justice system ([US] Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2005). Consensus guidance endorsed by US experts; includes treatment interventions, matching these to the offender, and planning programmes.

G Incorporating child protection in substance use services ([UK] Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs, 2003). Results of an inquiry in to the welfare of and responses to children in the UK seriously affected by parental drug use. Includes (starting p. 82) guidance on incorporating child protection measures in the work of drug and alcohol services. Update published in 2006. For discussion click and scroll down to highlighted heading.

G Scottish guidance on protecting families and children advocates whole-family recovery (Scottish Government, 2013). Guidance specific to substance use intended for all child and adult services, including drug and alcohol services. What new patients should be asked about children and the role substance use services should play in a system which (Getting our Priorities Right is the title) prioritises child welfare. For discussion click and scroll down to highlighted heading.

G Key capabilities for treatment staff to work with male perpetrators of domestic violence (2015). Published by King’s College, London, and developed from UK research. Helps substance use treatment services define and clarify key staff capabilities (knowledge, attitude and values, ethical practice, skills and reflection and professional development) for working with male substance users who are violent to intimate partners. See also generic NICE quality standards ([UK] National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, 2016) for health and social care services on assessing and responding to domestic abuse.

G Good practice in responding to domestic and sexual violence involving substance use (2013). UK guidelines based on a three-year government-funded project to improve responses to victims and perpetrators of domestic and sexual violence associated with substance use and/or mental health problems. Includes minimum standards of practice and guidance on policies and procedures. See also generic NICE quality standards ([UK] National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, 2016) for health and social care services on assessing and responding to domestic abuse.

G Australian guidance on addressing family and domestic violence in addiction treatment ([Australian] National Centre for Education and Training on Addiction, 2013). Among other functions, intended to guide managers in organising policies, procedures and staff training and development to identify and address family or domestic violence among substance use patients.

G US guidance in substance use treatment and domestic violence ([US] Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 1997). US consensus guidance on how treatment services can identify and work with both perpetrators and victims.

G UN guide to starting and managing needle and syringe programmes in prison (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2014). Companion to WHO’s generic guide (World Health Organization [etc], 2007) to managing needle exchanges.

more Search for all relevant analyses or for subtopics go to the subject search page and hot topics on child protection and helping the families of substance users.

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