The common core of therapy

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The common core of therapy

Across mental health and behavioural problems, ‘Dodo bird’ findings that bona fide therapies have similar effects have turned attention to the ‘common factors’ they share rather than how they differ. A collection specially catalogued to explore this important issue starting with the analyses most recently added or updated, totalling today 72 documents.

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REVIEW 2018 HTM file
Positive regard and psychotherapy outcome: a meta-analytic review

Findings amalgamated for the American Psychological Association show that across psychotherapy studies, outcomes improve the more therapists consistently demonstrate warmth and high regard for their clients – given the stigma and low regard attached to dependent substance use(rs), findings with important implications for promoting recovery.

REVIEW 2018 HTM file
The real relationship and its role in psychotherapy outcome: a meta-analysis

[Consultation draft subject to amendment and correction.] Amalgamated findings in a review commissioned by the American Psychological Association indicate that patient progress and treatment quality are strongly related to the strength of the personal (‘real’) relationship between client and therapist – more strongly than the relationship focused on therapy or the type of therapy.

REVIEW 2018 HTM file
Meta-analysis of the alliance–outcome relation in couple and family therapy

[Consultation draft subject to amendment and correction.] Amalgamation and review of research findings commissioned by the American Psychological Association reveals that working relationships in couple and family therapies are at least as important as in individual therapies. Practice recommendations will help therapists develop these relationships, augmenting the impacts of some of the most effective ways to treat substance use problems.

REVIEW 2018 HTM file
Alliance rupture repair: a meta-analysis

Amalgamation of research findings commissioned by the American Psychological Association raises the intriguing possibility that experiencing the resolution of breakdowns or tensions (‘ruptures’) in the therapist–client relationship promotes client welfare even more than relationships with no ruptures. Evidence-based tips are given to help therapists resolve ruptures.

COLLECTION 2018 HTM file
The client–therapist relationship

‘Collections’ are customised Effectiveness Bank searches not available via the standard options in the search pages. At the heart of addiction treatment lies client–therapist relationships, across psychotherapy a stronger influence on how well clients do than the type of therapy.

REVIEW 2018 HTM file
Therapist empathy and client outcome: an updated meta-analysis

Review commissioned by the American Psychological Association finds that the more therapists empathically communicate their understanding of and compassion for clients, the better the outcomes. Recommendations will help counsellors, therapists, trainers and supervisors foster this important foundation for therapist–client relationships.

REVIEW 2018 HTM file
A meta-analysis of the association between patients’ early perception of treatment credibility and their posttreatment outcomes

Review commissioned by the American Psychological Association suggests therapists should incorporate strategies to enhance the credibility of treatment when explaining its rationale and throughout therapy. The more a treatment ‘makes sense’ to a patient, the better outcomes tend to be.

REVIEW 2018 HTM file
A meta-analysis of the association between patients’ early treatment outcome expectation and their posttreatment outcomes

A review commissioned by the American Psychological Association found that patients who enter psychotherapy with positive expectations about outcomes tend to actually have better outcomes, suggesting therapists should regularly assess expectations and if indicated take steps to enhance them.

REVIEW 2018 HTM file
Cohesion in group therapy: a meta-analysis

A review commissioned by the American Psychological Association suggests that fostering cohesion between leaders and groups and within groups is an important way to improve group therapy outcomes. Practice recommendations are offered to help group leaders make the most of this common substance use treatment modality.

REVIEW 2011 HTM file
Adapting psychotherapy to the individual patient: Resistance/reactance level

Meta-analytic review commissioned by a US task force concludes that psychotherapy patients who characteristically exhibit low levels of resistance or reactance respond better to directive types of treatment, while reactive patients prone to resist direction respond best to non-directive approaches.


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