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STUDY 2004 PDF file 86Kb
Scottish report calls for needle exchanges to provide citric acid
Injectors rapidly converted to using the citric acid sachets piloted by needle exchanges in Scotland, avoiding more risky ways of acidifying their drugs to prepare them for injection.
STUDY 2004 PDF file 164Kb
Female crack smokers respond well to standard HIV risk-reduction sessions
Outreach work among inner-city female drug users in Atlanta demonstrated the potential impact of just two standard sessions addressing the sex- and drug-related HIV risk of crack smokers, but also the utility of more customised help, especially for injectors.
DOCUMENT 2014 HTM file
Needle and syringe programmes
The UK’s health advisory body recommends high coverage and if need be, 24-hour needle exchange to combat HIV and the hepatitis C epidemic. The aim they say is for every injector to have even more sterile injecting equipment than they need for every single injection.
REVIEW 2008 HTM file
Needle and syringe programs and bleach in prisons: reviewing the evidence
Brief but thoroughly researched review argues that prison needle exchange is among the best ways to contain the potential for rapid spread of HIV infection in prison and possibly too in the community after prisoners are released.
After needle exchanges started distributing crack smoking equipment, drug injectors in Ottawa shifted from injecting to smoking the drug and less often shared their smoking equipment. The result was safer drug use and greater service contact by crack smokers.
From New York, a success story of the reversal of a serious epidemic of HIV among injectors, with mass needle exchange in the starring role. It adds weight to studies which collectively indicate that multi-strand approaches featuring high-coverage syringe provision can curb the spread of HIV.
OFFCUT 2006 PDF file 137Kb
Gaps in British harm reduction defences permit minor resurgence in HIV infection
Gaps in harm reduction defences are permitting a minor resurgence in HIV infection in Britain and continued high rate of spread of hepatitis C; each year of the 2000s injectors were two to three times more likely to be infected with HIV than in the mid-90s.
From Baltimore in the USA, evidence that encouraging syringe exchange participants to enter treatment will reduce their drug use, crime and injecting more than syringe exchange alone.
DOCUMENT 2011 HTM file
Prevention and control of infectious diseases among people who inject drugs
European Union drug misuse and disease control agencies have come together to offer guidance on how to prevent injection-related disease spread in Europe. Towards the top of the list are widespread injecting equipment supply and heroin substitute prescribing, but neither chime well with the UK's recovery-focused addiction policies.
Until June 2008 Victoria in Canada had a comprehensive extended hours needle exchange at a fixed site in the city. Neighbourhood pressure led to closure, creating a natural experiment in the withdrawal of services. The result seemed to be more sharing of injecting equipment entailing a greater risk of infection.
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