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REVIEW 2011 HTM file
Evidence-based therapy relationships: research conclusions and clinical practices

Draws conclusions and makes recommendations based on research syntheses commissioned by the American Psychological Association on effective therapeutic relationships and how to match therapeutic style to different patients. Though not specific to substance use, this work will be critical to the recovery agenda for addiction treatment.

NOTES 2003 PDF file 186Kb
Race and gender in the delivery of drug services

Notes on studies concerned with matching treatment staff with patients on race and gender dimensions.

STUDY 2003 PDF file 161Kb
Disappointing results in test of 'culturally competent' services

Contrary to expectations, 'culturally competent' US outpatient treatment services generally did not improve outcomes by improving the take up of health and psychosocial services.

STUDY 2002 PDF file 164Kb
Still little evidence for matching client with same-gender or same-race therapist

Following negative findings for group therapy, a study of cocaine counselling found that even in one-to-one therapy, matching clients and therapists by gender or race does not improve retention or outcomes. Extended text includes comprehensive review.

STUDY 2000 PDF file 112Kb
Client-receptive treatment more important than treatment-receptive clients

A careful analysis of US drug counselling confirms that engaging with treatment is linked to good outcomes and that both depend on how well the counsellor relates to the client, which cannot be reduced to simplistic matching on gender and race.